Dangerous Goods A.D.R in Transportation

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What are dangerous goods?

These are those goods which, in their production process, handling, storage, movement or in their own natural state, may give off gases or vapors that are harmful to health or easily ignited.

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What types of dangerous goods are there?

The UN group of experts classifies and constitutes the document from which the current regulations governing the transport of dangerous goods by road at both national and international level originate.

Depending on the requirements for their transport, a distinction is made between restrictive dangerous goods, which are explicitly named and require express authorization, and non-restrictive dangerous goods, which allow their transport by general groups. According to the classes of dangerous goods, the established categorization is as follows:

Class 1. Explosive materials and objects

It includes the most dangerous goods, not only the explosive goods themselves, but all those that under certain conditions can cause explosions and even fires, either by exposure to high temperatures, or by friction or other circumstances that may modify their chemical nature. Due to its high hazardousness, the transportation of this type is specifically regulated. Within this group are pyrotechnic materials, such as rockets and firecrackers.

Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Materiales explosivos
Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Materiales explosivos
Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Materiales explosivos
Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Materiales peligrosos explosivos
Señal ADR peligro explosivos
Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Materiales peligrosos explosivos
Materiales explosivos

Class 2. Gases

This typology includes a varied group of substances with very different risks, such as toxicity or flammability, but which have specific gaseous characteristics under certain conditions. Compressed gases such as nitrogen and oxygen, liquefied gases such as butane or propane, pressurized gas cartridges such as aerosols, etc. are of this type.

Mercancias peligrosas - Gases inflamables
Mercancias peligrosas - Gases inflamables
Mercancias peligrosas - Gases inflamables

Class 3. Flammable liquids

They are a type of liquid that, when in contact with a flame or high temperature source, can catch fire. This category includes liquid fuels, such as gasoline or diesel fuel, as well as alcohols, varnishes, etc.

Liquidos inflamables

Class 4.1. Flammable solids

They are substances in solid state that under the influence of heat can burn or spark. Some may also generate toxic gases during combustion. This group includes woods, celluloids, phosphorous compounds, etc.

Solidos inflamables

Class 4.2. Substances susceptible to spontaneous ignition

This category contains those products that can either ignite spontaneously when in contact with air in small quantities, or not ignite at all, but undergo heating. White phosphorus, greasy and oily tissues, etc. are of this type.

Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Solidos espontaneamente inflamables

Class 4.3. Substances that give off flammable gases on contact with water

Here we find materials that react with water, releasing flammable gases that can cause explosions when in contact with air. Here we find substances such as metal hydrides, sodium, potassium, etc.

Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Solidos contacto agua inflamables

Class 5.1. Oxidizing or oxidizing substances

These are materials that are not combustible in themselves but which, by releasing oxygen, cause the combustion of other materials. For example, stabilized hydrogen peroxides, chlorites, percarbonates, etc.

Señal ADR Material oxidantes combustible

Class 5.2. Organic peroxides

These are materials like the oxidizers but, as they are more unstable, they have a greater probability of combustion, in addition to being combustible.

Peroxidos organicos

Class 6.1. Toxic materials

This type contains a wide variety of substances that chemically do not have much in common, but all of them are characterized by a high degree of toxicity to humans, the environment or animals. Examples of this category are cyanides, arsenic compounds, etc.

Materias toxicas

Class 6.2. Infectious materials

They are those that contain pathogens that cause disease to both animals and humans. Here we include microorganisms, such as viruses and bacteria, etc.

Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Materias infecciosas

Class 7. Radioactive materials

These materials emit certain particles and radiation that cause damage to cellular tissue. Here we have nuclear fuels, radioactive isotopes, etc.

Señal radioactiva ADR 7
Materias radioactivas I
Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Materias radioactivas II
Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Materias radioactivas III
Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Materias fisionables

Class 8. Corrosive materials

Due to their composition, when they come into contact they cause damage to the skin and mucous membranes, and in case of leakage, they can cause damage to the elements with which they come into contact. Corrosive acids and salts fall into this category.

Materias corrosivas

Class 9. Hazardous materials and other dangerous goods

During transportation, they may pose hazards different from those contemplated in the previous typologies.

Materias de peligros diversos

Last class: Toxic and hazardous wastes

The latter category includes all containers that have contained any of the substances described in the preceding sections. Their transportation must also be specifically regulated to avoid damage.

Simbologia mercancias peligrosas - Residuos tóxicos y peligrosos

Who regulates the transport of dangerous goods?

In the first instance, it is the MITMA, marks the regulations governing the transport of dangerous goods, who regulates this type of transport as we can see in the Royal Decree 97/2014, of February 14 published in the BOE. There are different organizations such as ADR (European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road), RID for international transport of dangerous goods by rail, IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods) applies to transport by international sea or ICAO for transport by air.

In any case, the transport company and the driver of a vehicle transporting dangerous goods must inform himself about the different regulations on dangerous goods loads.

What information must the consignment note accompanying a dangerous goods transport contain?

When carrying out a transport of this type we must consider the dangerous goods transport documentation and the ADR danger labels.

1- UN number which must be preceded by the letters “UN”.

2- Official shipping name and technical data sheet.

3- The label model numbers must be indicated. For explosive materials, it must also indicate the classification code and hazard labels. For radioactive materials, class number “7”. For lithium, UN numbers 3090, 3091, 3480, and 3481 are class number “9”.

4- “GE” packing group

5- Number of packages and description .

6- Total quantity of each dangerous good together with the UN number.

7- Name and address of the sender(s).

8- The name and address of the addressee.

9- Declaration in accordance with the provisions of any special agreement.

10- When applicable, the tunnel restriction code in capital letters should also appear.

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